Water is present in all places in mining and its management varies according to its position in the mining processes. In a recent in-depth article by pumps major KSB, the corporate outlines how this in turn influences the number of technologies utilized in pumping water. “Alongside the protected provide and recovery of process water is the problem of removing ground water. Process water and groundwater include abrasive and corrosive elements in various portions which have an antagonistic have an effect on on pump efficiency and life. Working conditions, remote places, various temperature ranges and the lack of electrical power are additionally extremely influential elements.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia could additionally be many 1000’s of miles aside, but these mining operations nonetheless require dewatering and the secure disposal of probably contaminated water. “The same can be mentioned of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What they all have in widespread is a requirement for environment friendly and efficient water and slurry pumps. Well-matched options help to maximize the longevity and efficiency of the system and also optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
The changing face of mining
The seek for more rare and precious minerals and metals has opened up mining in international locations and areas where previously the trade was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining corporations and gear manufacturers have needed to develop new techniques and merchandise. And with the major mining corporations having operations in lots of international places, changing into a most popular tools supplier is essential. “The dewatering market is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX perspective to an more and more OPEX perspective,” stories Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is especially true for the massive mines that understand that poorly designed gear that regularly fails, causes a big improve in substitute and servicing value. Some mining firms at the second are committing to a carbon impartial goal in the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on excessive efficiency equipment. They want to phase out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their local electrical grid.”
KSB says it is aware that mining firms are recording pump performance and are accumulating information to compare manufacturers and higher rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is nice information for KSB as the corporate is committed to delivering high reliability and efficiency pumps, so helping to scale back the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the reply to this can be a resounding ‘no’, however “by sharing experiences between offices and also frequently working with the same worldwide mining corporations, KSB has been capable of develop applicable options. KSB’s involvement within the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia show two completely different approaches to dewatering, both using vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines extreme floor water, monsoons and underground lakes are issues. To keep continuous production water must be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water level that should be raised two or 3 times a yr. KSB Brazil’s answer is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with adjustments in the water stage so there is no need for the pumps to be repositioned. This leads to cost-savings to the client. After 20 profitable years it has turn into the standard for this kind of tools in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the circulate fee requested by the shopper,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, high power motors and associated equipment ends in the scale of the floating station being elevated. Stabilizing tools that weighs greater than 200 t requires plenty of planning, along with the problem of constructing a system in such a distant space.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in a quantity of places around the Chichester hub zone, an area between 5 and 9 km wide and 80 km long. The mineral deposit sits between ninety m and 117 m below the surface. With the groundwater and water desk frequently replenished in wet seasons and cyclones including to the inundation, more than 75% of the iron ore is beneath the water table. If too much water mixes with iron ore, it becomes low grade and unsuitable for export, which leads to huge revenue losses. Also, surface dewatering processes are extraordinarily costly if the water is very high.
The accepted dewatering process within the region is to pump the water out via boreholes. However, this is not without its challenges. High water temperatures and high salinity result in excessive corrosion, whilst iron bacteria can grow on motors which forestall environment friendly motor cooling. The presence of gas is a continuing risk in some areas as this causes gasoline lock on the impellers resulting in heavy vibrations, which places a great pressure on the motor, loss of move rate and motor failure.
This implies that commonplace off-the-shelf merchandise aren’t always suitable and the incidence of failures is high. Typically, most bore pumps fail within 12 months, and sometimes only a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB offers mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to withstand site conditions. Although a dearer product than its competitors, the UPA has been shown to ship a significantly longer working life and reduced prices of ownership. KSB’ เกจวัดแรง that inhibits the growth of iron micro organism makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted models
In Africa the environment and minerals being mined require revolutionary approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, residence to several open reduce and underground copper mines wet seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering a number of totally different pumping solutions involving both UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To forestall mining operations from being shut down, a fast localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our answer has been to produce Omega pumps mounted on tough terrain trailers. We provide a whole package deal made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary gear together with vacuum pump, management panels, displays and so on that delivers excessive head pumping.”
A related solution can be provided for the open cast Moatize coal mine in Mozambique the place the water levels should remain low for steady manufacturing reliability. Whilst borehole pumps offer good reliability on a constant basis, when the wet season begins, more sources are in demand KSB SA supplies skid-mounted Omega models. To date, KSB SA has provided 152 models and all are working reliably.
Latin America
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a constant downside. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water accommodates solid particles so the high pressure encapsulated UPA borehole pumps must be wear-resistant for long term effectivity. Because the dewatering pumps work at a high velocity, the impellers and the put on and tear ring can suffer from untimely wear. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 standard chrome coating, put on is significantly minimised. “We have had pumps operating on this mine for over two years with out the impellers being modified,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is an answer that no competitor presents, and provides worth for the client through reduced maintenance, spare parts and greater mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and 4,500 m. Remote websites, mine depths and the unavailability of electricity wanted to drive excessive capacity pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and lead to environmental pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, driven by diesel motors.
“Our prospects require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that can be moved with the expansion of the open pit,” comments Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The resolution is to make use of horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a particular configuration for sand filters encased in a stress shroud. This provides the client flexibility and versatility because the tools is compact, develops excessive pressures and is easy to move across the site.
To accommodate rising flows and discharge strain pumps are configured in series and in parallel particularly for the client’s necessities. Being coupled to diesel engines allows steady, autonomous operation in locations without electricity for between 12 and 24 hours without refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps put in on a raft enabling them to deal with the accumulation of water inside the mine, eliminating components similar to unfavorable suction head at high altitudes. KSB tools for mine drainage is equipped in normal variations, with variations for rafts or well pumps put in in pressure jackets. Having viable options for dewatering adds value to the customers operations and is also necessary as a result of each year minerals are discovered at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is likely certainly one of the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and likewise a serious player in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for their excellent capacity to perform in severe open pit mine websites. Its growth of dewatering and dredge pump sets (DnD), as a solution for mining applications, particularly for open-pit mine websites is one instance of KSB’ commitment to continuous product enchancment and improvement. To date, more than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been installed in mines throughout Indonesia and South East Asia. In 2013, KSB Indonesia launched a new model, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by prospects.
KSB builds the entire diesel pushed pump unit on a barge, complete with gas tank, vacuum pump, control panel and so on, and ships them on trailers for simple commissioning at web site. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering can be a seasonal exercise and this implies pumps can stand idle for several months during the dry intervals. Recognising this situation, KSB has launched a rental programme, whereby the pumps are equipped fully-kitted out in accordance with the customer’s necessities. By not having to purchase the pump sets, customers are relieved of the costs of ownership and know that after they require units they come ready for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering systems enable the secure and efficient decreasing of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage functions. Regardless of a mine’s location, the type of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid dealing with technologies that may match all eventualities. This scenario has come about through the cross-fertilisation of ideas, applied sciences and experiences gained over many decades by our firms around the world, supported by intensive funding in analysis and growth. Wherever a pumping solution is required, we can deliver a co-ordinated response to the table.