Mining is probably one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots back to these prehistoric days when somebody grabbed a digging instrument and began burrowing into the ground. In the numerous millennia since, mining has grown into one of many world’s most essential and widespread business enterprises, with operations unfold throughout the globe whereas tasked with recovering an nearly inexhaustible listing of useful commodities.
In reality, according to the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined products had been recovered in 2018, up from eleven.three billion metric tons in 2000 and almost double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian international locations accounted for 58 percent of the 2018 manufacturing, with North America second at 15.1 %, followed by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.eight percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.three percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) have been essentially the most prolific producers, with their complete fifty one.1 p.c of manufacturing more than the relaxation of the world mixed.
This implies that the mining trade is a robust one, with stable development expected to continue within the coming years in plenty of regions of the world. It also signifies that mining operations will proceed to rely on pumping technologies that provide robust, reliable, and safe service in numerous crucial liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why positive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps can be your greatest option for many of these functions.
While mining might appear to be nothing greater than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, actually, many advanced and sometimes delicate operations that have to be carried out correctly if the mining operation is to carry out at its highest level of effectivity.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping expertise that may operate reliably in harsh and remote places, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive merchandise, and likewise one that is prepared to be maintained and repaired in order that downtime is lessened. The pumps should even be light sufficient to be manually moved from location to location inside the mine itself.
For a few years, a popular alternative for use in these situations was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are capable of create the excessive flow rates which may be required, they’ve numerous operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining applications: an incapability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to stop leaks; special linings wanted to handle solids; high motor speeds of up to 1,800 rpm; and comparatively excessive upkeep requirements and costs, particularly when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another popular selection has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they have numerous operational shortcomings. These embrace an lack of ability to consistently handle liquids with high levels of abrasives, which ends up in increased upkeep prices, put on on costly stators and rotors that may finally must be replaced, and total higher buy, working, and repair/replacement prices.
Here are a few of the particular liquid-transfer operations that take place in a mine and the ways that some pump technologies can fall brief in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing excess produced water from the mine is a critical 24/7/365 operation and the water that’s recovered is usually stuffed with particulates that can be as large as zero.12 to zero.sixteen inches in dimension. If used in this software, centrifugal pumps require special materials of construction, which may be cost prohibitive, to protect in opposition to impeller wear brought on by the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are also not dry-run succesful, which adversely affects their degree of efficiency on this utility.
General service: For widespread liquid-handling purposes, you need an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip traces, operate at low speeds while nonetheless delivering excessive move charges, and be straightforward to take care of and restore. Centrifugal pumps simply do not possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted elements of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. เพรสเชอร์เกจ demands a necessity to use particular mechanical seals, which can result in exorbitant upkeep, repair, and alternative costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to clean the liquids which would possibly be produced in the mines and, again, centrifugal pumps can fall brief on this utility as a end result of the solid-laden liquid can injury the pump’s internals until special, more expensive materials of construction or linings are used. Also, the character of press-filter operation creates a strong discharge-pressure variation that may pressure the centrifugal pump to function away from its best effectivity level (BEP), resulting in excessive vibration and radial masses that can result in shortened service life. A resolution to this is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, but these are expensive and may negatively have an result on the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product switch: This is obtainable in all varieties in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport trucks with new and used oil for the heavy machinery, fresh and fouled water, and any chemicals that are required. In every instance, there is the danger that the pump might be compelled to run dry because the truck or storage vessel is emptied, whereas discharge-pressure variation can even generate high vibration and radial hundreds. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps can not run dry, so they need protection from this situation or the addition of particular seals. However, all of those upgrades nonetheless can not completely protect against a catastrophic failure.
While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have confirmed to not be the best solution in lots of liquid-handling purposes in mining, one pump technology that has proven to be an optimum selection is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and maintenance, and safety for mining personnel and the setting.
AODD pumps are capable of perform effectively in mining functions as a end result of their methodology of operation permits them to simply handle variable circulate charges and pressures, whereas being dry-run and line-stripping succesful, and nimble sufficient to switch liquids which may be shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, in addition to slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
The simple design of the AODD pump options few transferring parts and comparably lower speeds than other pump applied sciences, which improves reliability and simplifies upkeep, whereas the pump’s seal-less construction ends in fewer leaks, which is a crucial consideration when handling the many hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids that are prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps can be found in both metal (most generally aluminum, ductile iron and cast iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, while a huge selection of elastomers can be utilized in the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility issues.
A broad variety of AODD pump configurations present operational flexibility that may additionally lead to optimized efficiency at many ranges. The capability to feature AODD pumps in a wide range of applications, from primary common use to delicate chemical-handling processes, allows operators to extra cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps can also be less costly to function, especially those fashions which are outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most simple, AODD pumps excel within the typical rugged and harsh operating conditions discovered within the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents together with corresponding downtime and restore costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years ago, has been devoted to developing applied sciences that meet the needs of mining operations. Today, Wilden provides three AODD pump fashions which are built to excel in mining functions, obtainable in ductile iron, forged iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar materials of construction:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which feature a bolted configuration, have been built for use in purposes that require the dealing with of liquids featuring giant solids. The Brahma pumps have a unique top-inlet/bottom-discharge move orientation and flap valves that enable the passage of huge solids with no threat that damage will happen because of product entrapment or the settling of solids inside the pump’s internal move paths. Brahma pumps are available in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to reduce air consumption by as a lot as 60 %. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate range for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures as much as 125 psi with solids-handling functionality starting from 2 to three inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps function a clamped design with carrying handles for light-weight portability. Their design features giant internal clearances and flow-through paths for straightforward passage of large solids with no chance for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve assembly additional allows solids passage, while a polyurethane screen base on the inlet will increase the pump’s durability. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) fashions are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps featuring the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most sturdy ADS design for the hardest environments. Flow charges amongst the six fashions range from 57 gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures up to 125 psi. Solids sizes that may be dealt with range from half to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps characteristic clamped or bolted configuration. Their design options completely different chamber supplies, together with metallic and plastics, even Kynar, which is able to dealing with excessive ranges of abrasive supplies. The Pro-Flo SHIFT can be essentially the most environment friendly AODD pump out there, capable of reducing as a lot as 60 percent air consumption. This makes it the best option for handling corrosive and abrasive products in mining processes. The pumps have a product range that goes from 1.5 to 3 inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are able to be outfitted with a broad selection of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a various array of materials, corresponding to Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm vary gives users the widest selection of diaphragms available on the market, all of which are capable of providing prolonged mean time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with lowered maintenance, restore, and substitute prices.
All of those capabilities make AODD pumps the best alternative for the aforementioned widespread liquid-handling purposes in mining: dewatering, common service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and every day product transfer.
In summary, Wilden AODD pumps are the most fitted choice for mining applications because they provide appreciable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead functionality, together with increased operational safety and a reduction in maintenance/repair prices that might be incurred by pumps that are not designed to deal with abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps also outperform different AODD technologies in other significant methods: simple design with the lowest variety of parts for quicker, easier, and safer repairs and the lowest number of spare components to stock; current improvements in supplies of development that enhance the pump’s MTBF; and improved effectivity through the use of the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which finally ends in quicker product transfer with lower air consumption. Wilden also continues to innovate by way of the event of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, both of which improve service life and security while not compromising the handling of difficult liquids.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Fernando Meneses is the regional manager North Latin America for Wilden, a leading manufacturer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Wilden is a product model of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of a number of leading pump companies, including Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For extra info, go to www.wildenpump.com or www.psgdover.com.