Mining is doubtless one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots again to those prehistoric days when somebody grabbed a digging instrument and began burrowing into the bottom. In the numerous millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most necessary and widespread business enterprises, with operations unfold across the globe whereas tasked with recovering an virtually inexhaustible record of valuable commodities.
In fact, according to the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined products had been recovered in 2018, up from 11.3 billion metric tons in 2000 and almost double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian countries accounted for 58 % of the 2018 production, with North America second at 15.1 %, followed by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.8 percent), Latin America (6.three percent), and Africa (5.3 percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) were probably the most prolific producers, with their whole fifty one.1 % of production greater than the rest of the world mixed.
This signifies that the mining business is a strong one, with stable progress anticipated to proceed in the coming years in many regions of the world. It also means that mining operations will proceed to rely on pumping applied sciences that offer sturdy, reliable, and protected service in a selection of important liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why positive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps can be the solely option for a lot of of these purposes.
While mining might seem like nothing greater than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy machinery or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, in fact, many advanced and typically delicate operations that have to be performed correctly if the mining operation is to perform at its highest stage of efficiency.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping technology that may function reliably in harsh and remote places, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive merchandise, and also one that is able to be maintained and repaired in order that downtime is lessened. The pumps should even be mild sufficient to be manually moved from location to location inside the mine itself.
For many years, a well-liked selection for use in these situations was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are in a place to create the excessive flow charges which are required, they’ve a quantity of operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining purposes: an inability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to forestall leaks; particular linings wanted to handle solids; excessive motor speeds of as a lot as 1,800 rpm; and comparatively excessive upkeep necessities and costs, especially when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another popular alternative has been the progressive cavity pump, however, like centrifugal pumps, they’ve a quantity of operational shortcomings. These embrace an inability to constantly deal with liquids with high levels of abrasives, which outcomes in increased upkeep costs, put on on costly stators and rotors that may finally must be changed, and general larger purchase, operating, and repair/replacement costs.
Here are a few of the particular liquid-transfer operations that happen in a mine and the ways in which some pump applied sciences can fall short in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing extra produced water from the mine is a critical 24/7/365 operation and the water that’s recovered is often full of particulates that could be as massive as 0.12 to zero.sixteen inches in dimension. If used on this utility, centrifugal pumps require particular materials of construction, which could be cost prohibitive, to protect in opposition to impeller wear attributable to the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are also not dry-run succesful, which adversely impacts their level of efficiency on this utility.
General service: For common liquid-handling purposes, you want an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip lines, function at low speeds whereas still delivering high flow rates, and be simple to keep up and restore. Centrifugal pumps simply don’t possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted parts of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This sometimes demands a necessity to make use of special mechanical seals, which may lead to exorbitant maintenance, repair, and substitute costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to wash the liquids that are produced within the mines and, again, centrifugal pumps can fall quick in this application as a outcome of the solid-laden liquid can harm the pump’s internals except special, dearer materials of building or linings are used. Also, the nature of press-filter operation creates a robust discharge-pressure variation that can drive the centrifugal pump to function away from its finest effectivity point (BEP), resulting in excessive vibration and radial loads that may result in shortened service life. A answer to that is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are expensive and may negatively affect the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product switch: This comes in all types in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport trucks with new and used oil for the heavy equipment, recent and fouled water, and any chemical compounds which are required. In every occasion, there is the risk that the pump shall be compelled to run dry because the truck or storage vessel is emptied, while discharge-pressure variation also can generate excessive vibration and radial masses. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps can’t run dry, in order that they want safety from this condition or the addition of particular seals. However, all of these upgrades nonetheless can not totally shield towards a catastrophic failure.
While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have confirmed to not be the best solution in lots of liquid-handling applications in mining, one pump know-how that has proven to be an optimum selection is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and maintenance, and security for mining personnel and the surroundings.
AODD pumps are able to perform successfully in mining applications as a end result of their technique of operation permits them to easily handle variable flow rates and pressures, while being dry-run and line-stripping succesful, and nimble sufficient to switch liquids that are shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, in addition to slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
The simple design of the AODD pump features few shifting parts and comparably lower speeds than different pump applied sciences, which improves reliability and simplifies maintenance, while the pump’s seal-less construction results in fewer leaks, which is a critical consideration when dealing with the many hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids that are prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps can be found in both steel (most commonly aluminum, ductile iron and cast iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, while a broad selection of elastomers can be utilized within the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility issues.
A broad variety of AODD pump configurations present operational flexibility that may also lead to optimized efficiency at many ranges. The capability to characteristic AODD pumps in a variety of applications, from primary general use to delicate chemical-handling processes, permits operators to extra cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps can additionally be more cost effective to function, especially those fashions which may be outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At pressure gauge ลม , AODD pumps excel within the typical rugged and harsh operating circumstances discovered within the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents together with corresponding downtime and repair costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping precept sixty-five years ago, has been dedicated to developing technologies that meet the wants of mining operations. Today, Wilden provides three AODD pump models that are constructed to excel in mining applications, out there in ductile iron, cast iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar materials of development:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which function a bolted configuration, have been constructed to be used in functions that require the dealing with of liquids featuring large solids. The Brahma pumps have a singular top-inlet/bottom-discharge circulate orientation and flap valves that enable the passage of huge solids with no threat that injury will happen as a result of product entrapment or the settling of solids throughout the pump’s inside move paths. Brahma pumps are available in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to reduce air consumption by up to 60 %. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate range for the four Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures as much as one hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling functionality starting from 2 to three inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps characteristic a clamped design with carrying handles for light-weight portability. Their design options massive inner clearances and flow-through paths for simple passage of enormous solids with no likelihood for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve meeting further allows solids passage, while a polyurethane screen base at the inlet will increase the pump’s sturdiness. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) models are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps featuring the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most strong ADS design for the hardest environments. Flow charges amongst the six fashions range from 57 gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures up to one hundred twenty five psi. Solids sizes that can be handled range from half to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps function clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features different chamber materials, including metal and plastics, even Kynar, which is able to dealing with high ranges of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT can be probably the most efficient AODD pump out there, capable of decreasing as much as 60 % air consumption. This makes it the finest option for dealing with corrosive and abrasive merchandise in mining processes. The pumps have a product range that goes from 1.5 to 3 inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are in a place to be outfitted with a huge selection of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a varying array of materials, corresponding to Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm vary gives customers the widest selection of diaphragms available on the market, all of that are capable of providing prolonged imply time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with reduced upkeep, restore, and replacement costs.
All of those capabilities make AODD pumps the ideal alternative for the aforementioned frequent liquid-handling applications in mining: dewatering, basic service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and day by day product transfer.
In summary, Wilden AODD pumps are the most suitable choice for mining purposes as a end result of they offer considerable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead capability, together with elevated operational safety and a discount in maintenance/repair costs that can be incurred by pumps that aren’t designed to deal with abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps additionally outperform different AODD applied sciences in other important ways: simple design with the lowest number of parts for quicker, easier, and safer repairs and the lowest variety of spare parts to inventory; latest improvements in materials of development that improve the pump’s MTBF; and improved effectivity by way of using the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which ultimately leads to quicker product transfer with lower air consumption. Wilden additionally continues to innovate by way of the development of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, both of which improve service life and security whereas not compromising the handling of difficult liquids.
Fernando Meneses is the regional supervisor North Latin America for Wilden, a leading producer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He could be reached at Wilden is a product brand of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of several leading pump corporations, including Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For more info, go to or