Water is current all over the place in mining and its control varies according to its role in the mining processes. In a latest in-depth article by pumps major KSB, the corporate outlines how this in turn influences the selection of technologies utilized in pumping water. “Alongside the safe provide and recovery of process water is the challenge of eradicating ground water. Process water and groundwater contain abrasive and corrosive parts in varying quantities which have an adverse affect on pump performance and life. Working ราคาเพรสเชอร์เกจ , remote locations, varying temperature ranges and the dearth of electrical energy are also extremely influential elements.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia could additionally be many thousands of miles apart, however these mining operations still require dewatering and the secure disposal of potentially contaminated water. “The similar could be stated of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What they all have in common is a requirement for environment friendly and efficient water and slurry pumps. Well-matched solutions assist to maximise the longevity and efficiency of the system and also optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
The changing face of mining
The search for extra rare and valuable minerals and metals has opened up mining in countries and places where beforehand the trade was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining firms and tools producers have needed to develop new strategies and products. And with the most important mining firms having operations in many world places, becoming a most popular tools supplier is essential. “The dewatering market is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX perspective to an increasingly OPEX perspective,” reviews Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is especially true for the big mines that notice that poorly designed equipment that frequently fails, causes a big increase in substitute and servicing cost. Some mining firms are actually committing to a carbon neutral target in the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on high efficiency tools. They wish to part out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their local electrical grid.”
KSB says it’s aware that mining corporations are recording pump performance and are accumulating data to compare brands and better rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is sweet news for KSB as the corporate is dedicated to delivering excessive reliability and effectivity pumps, so helping to reduce back the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the reply to it is a resounding ‘no’, but “by sharing experiences between places of work and in addition regularly working with the same worldwide mining companies, KSB has been able to develop appropriate options. KSB’s involvement in the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia reveal two totally different approaches to dewatering, each using vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines excessive floor water, monsoons and underground lakes are issues. To keep steady manufacturing water must be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water degree that must be raised two or three times a year. KSB Brazil’s resolution is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with adjustments in the water degree so there is not a want for the pumps to be repositioned. This ends in cost-savings to the shopper. After 20 successful years it has become the usual for this type of equipment in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the flow rate requested by the shopper,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, high power motors and associated tools results in the scale of the floating station being elevated. Stabilizing tools that weighs greater than 200 t requires plenty of planning, in addition to the challenge of constructing a system in such a distant space.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in several places around the Chichester hub zone, an space between 5 and 9 km extensive and 80 km lengthy. The mineral deposit sits between 90 m and 117 m under the floor. With the groundwater and water desk regularly replenished in moist seasons and cyclones adding to the inundation, more than 75% of the iron ore is under the water desk. If too much water mixes with iron ore, it turns into low grade and unsuitable for export, which finally ends up in large revenue losses. Also, floor dewatering processes are extremely pricey if the water may be very excessive.
The accepted dewatering course of throughout the region is to pump the water out by way of boreholes. However, this is not without its challenges. High water temperatures and excessive salinity lead to extreme corrosion, while iron bacteria can grow on motors which prevent environment friendly motor cooling. The presence of fuel is a continuing risk in some areas as this causes gasoline lock on the impellers resulting in heavy vibrations, which locations a fantastic pressure on the motor, loss of flow price and motor failure.
This implies that normal off-the-shelf merchandise usually are not at all times appropriate and the incidence of failures is excessive. Typically, most bore pumps fail inside 12 months, and sometimes just a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB supplies mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to resist site situations. Although a dearer product than its opponents, the UPA has been proven to ship a considerably longer working life and reduced prices of ownership. KSB’s proprietary technology that inhibits the growth of iron micro organism makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted models
In Africa the setting and minerals being mined require innovative approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, residence to several open reduce and underground copper mines rainy seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering a quantity of totally different pumping solutions involving both UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To forestall mining operations from being shut down, a quick localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our answer has been to supply Omega pumps mounted on rough terrain trailers. We supply a whole package deal made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary gear together with vacuum pump, control panels, monitors and so on that delivers excessive head pumping.”
A comparable resolution is also supplied for the open cast Moatize coal mine in Mozambique where the water ranges should stay low for steady manufacturing reliability. Whilst borehole pumps supply good reliability on a relentless foundation, when the wet season starts, more resources are in demand KSB SA supplies skid-mounted Omega models. To date, KSB SA has supplied 152 models and all are working reliably.
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a continuing drawback. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water accommodates solid particles so the high stress encapsulated UPA borehole pumps should be wear-resistant for long run efficiency. Because the dewatering pumps work at a excessive speed, the impellers and the damage ring can undergo from untimely wear. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 normal chrome coating, put on is tremendously minimised. “We have had pumps working in this mine for over two years with out the impellers being modified,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is a solution that no competitor presents, and adds value for the client through reduced maintenance, spare parts and larger mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and four,500 m. Remote websites, mine depths and the unavailability of electrical energy wanted to drive high capability pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and lead to environmental pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, driven by diesel motors.
“Our clients require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that may be moved with the growth of the open pit,” comments Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The solution is to use horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a special configuration for sand filters encased in a strain shroud. This provides the shopper flexibility and flexibility as a result of the tools is compact, develops excessive pressures and is straightforward to move across the website.
To accommodate rising flows and discharge strain pumps are configured in series and in parallel specifically for the client’s necessities. Being coupled to diesel engines allows continuous, autonomous operation in locations with out electrical energy for between 12 and 24 hours with out refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps put in on a raft enabling them to handle the accumulation of water inside the mine, eliminating elements similar to unfavorable suction head at high altitudes. KSB equipment for mine drainage is equipped in normal variations, with variations for rafts or well pumps put in in pressure jackets. Having viable options for dewatering adds value to the purchasers operations and can be essential because each year minerals are discovered at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is certainly one of the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and likewise a major player in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for his or her excellent capability to carry out in severe open pit mine sites. Its growth of dewatering and dredge pump sets (DnD), as a solution for mining purposes, particularly for open-pit mine websites is one instance of KSB’ commitment to steady product enchancment and improvement. To date, more than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been put in in mines across Indonesia and South East Asia. In 2013, KSB Indonesia launched a new model, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by prospects.
KSB builds the entire diesel pushed pump unit on a barge, full with gasoline tank, vacuum pump, control panel etc, and ships them on trailers for easy commissioning at website. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering can be a seasonal activity and this means pumps can stand idle for several months in the course of the dry periods. Recognising this case, KSB has introduced a rental programme, whereby the pumps are equipped fully-kitted out based on the customer’s necessities. By not having to purchase the pump sets, prospects are relieved of the costs of ownership and know that after they require models they come ready for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering methods enable the protected and environment friendly decreasing of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage functions. Regardless of a mine’s location, the type of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid handling applied sciences that may fit all eventualities. This scenario has come about through the cross-fertilisation of ideas, applied sciences and experiences gained over many decades by our firms around the world, supported by in depth funding in analysis and development. Wherever a pumping resolution is required, we will convey a co-ordinated response to the table.